The endothelium is the lining of blood vessels of the circulatory system, with a fundamental role in vasodilation. Studies of endothelial dysfunction are widespread and include a number of areas of both clinical and pre-clinical research. Fundamental to such studies are the techniques of laser Doppler monitoring and imaging combined, for example, with pressure cuff challenges, iontophoresis and/ or skin heating to provide reproducible challenges. The most recent advance in the field of iontophoresis and laser Doppler has been the use of laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in place of monitoring (LDF). The advantage of imaging is that blood flow can be imaged and recorded over an area of interest rather than a single point measurement, thus results are both more reliable and show better reproducibility.
|Techniques||Field of study||Reference|
Frank et al. 2010, George et al. 2009
Jadhav et al. 2007, Khan et al. 2008
|Diabetes||Beer et al. 2008, Franklin et al. 2008|
|Peripheral neuropathy||Brooks et al, 2008|
|Systemic sclerosis||Gunawardena et al 2007a, Murray et al. 2008|
|Dermal microvascular blood flow||Agarwal et al. 2010|
|Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy||Gunawardena et al 2007b|
|Skin heating & Iontophoresis||Vascular reactivity||Vascular reactivity Beed et al, 2009|
|PORH||Endothelial function||Yamamoto-Suganuma & Aso, 2009|
|Endothelial function||Spaan et al, 2010|
|Microvascular function - CVD||Shore et al, 2005|
It is difficult to make a definitive recommendation due to the wide scope of challenges used, coupled with the use of both monitoring and imaging, and the number of suitable imagers available. Systems can be offered to suit a range of budgets though and you are welcome to contact us to discuss further. Extended use of equipment for other research fields might influence the final decision but an ideal investigation lab would include the speckle contrast imager (moorFLPI-2), iontophoresis (MIC2) and skin heating (moorVMS-HEAT) options.
Contact us to discuss your specific needs and to request your copy of our free Application Note which includes a detailed experimental method and practical suggestions. We also offer no obligation on-site visits so you can test the equipment in your facility.
Agarwal S. C., Allen J., Murray A., Purcell I. F. (2010) Comparative reproducibility of dermal microvascular blood flow changes in response to acetylcholine iontophoresis, hyperthermia and reactive hyperaemia. Physiological Measurement, 31 (1)
Gunawardena H., Harris N. D., Carmichael C., McHugh N. J. (2007b) Microvascular responses following digital thermal hyperaemia and iontophoresis measured by laser Doppler imaging in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Rheumatology, 46, pp 1483-1486
Jadhav S., Sattar N., Petrie J. R., Cobbe S. M., Ferrell W. R. (2007) Reproducibility and repeatability of peripheral microvascular assessment using iontophoresis in conjunction with laser Doppler imaging. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 50 (3), pp 343-349
Khan F., George J., Wong K., McSwiggan S., Struthers A. D., Belch J. J. F. (2008) The association between serum urate levels and arterial stiffness/endothelial function in stroke survivors. Atherosclerosis, 200, pp 374-379
Sandoo A, Kitas G. D (2015)A Methodological Approach to Non-invasive Assessments of Vascular Function and Morphology. http://www.jove.com/video/52339/a-methodological-approach-to-non-invasive-assessments-vascular
Turner J., Belch J. J. F., Khan F. (2008) Current concepts in assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging and iontophoresis. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 18, (4), pp 109-116
Transdermal drug delivery by iontophoresis can be used with monitoring and imaging systems to assess blood flow/ oxygen responsesmoorVMS-HEAT
Skin heater module offers flexible and reproducible skin heating protocols for flow/ oxygen response assessments.moorVMS-PRES
Automatic pressure cuff control for routine microvascular testing